|1. Memorial:||Amara War Cemetery||XIII. J. 12.|
|2. Book:||The (1921) Masonic Roll of Honour 1914-1918|
Awards & Titles:
Family :Son of Mortimer Heffernan, of Lowesgreen, Fethard, Co. Tipperary, husband of Edith Heffernan, of 7, Brunswick Rd., Hove, Brighton.
- The First World War 1914-1918, World-wide.
|Unit :||Royal Army Medical Corps|
Tipperary Casualties of the Great War. By Tom and Ruth Burnell, Holycross, Co Tipperary HEFFERNAN Francis Joseph Christopher Lt Col Masonic roll lists him as Joseph Francis Christopher HEFFERNAN Appeared in the Catholic Roll of Honour THE DUBLIN REVIEW July, August, September, 1920
At the outbreak of war the British, together with Indian troops, resolved to protect oil supply in the region by occupying the area around Basra at Abadan. This evolved into a series of campaigns towards Baghdad against the Turkish forces as Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) was part of the Ottoman Empire. Meetings in late 1914 and into 1915 led the Viceroy and Indian government at Simla to reconsider the limited involvement of troops and they decided to order further advances with a view to securing the Shatt-al-Hai, a canal connecting the Tigris and Euphrates river and potentially capturing Baghdad. The British government disagreed and wished to conserve forces for the Western front. The Viceroy was given permission to act as it wished, but told in no uncertain terms that no reinforcements should be expected.
The initial success experienced by the British and Indian forces quickly disintegrated in the face of Ottoman opposition. The Siege of Kut-Al-Amara began on 7th December with the besieging of an 8,000 strong British-Indian garrison in the town of Kut, 100 miles south of Baghdad, by the Ottoman Army. These campaigns produced few tactical benefits, indeed the catastrophic defeat at Kut in 1916 was a major setback. Badhdad was eventually taken in March 1917.
The conditions in Mesopotamia were dreadful. The climate, sickness and disease produced large losses in addition to battle casualties. About as many men died of disease as were killed in action. The Mesopotamia front was part of a strategy hoping for success at lower cost than the Western Front but no decisive victory was achieved.
|Type||Lodge Name and No.||Province/District :|
|Mother :||In Arduis Fidelis No. 3432 E.C.||London|
14th April 1906
11th May 1906
10th October 1906
Initiate of Ligonier Lodge No. 2436 whilst stationed at Muttra. Petitioning and founder member of Chutter Munzil Lodge no. 3276 warranted to meet from 12th November 1907. He resigned on 30th Setpember 1910, probably on posting. He further joined In Arduis Fidelis No. 3432 2nd February 1911. "Died from woudns 16th July 17"
The project globally acknowledges the following as sources of information for research across the whole database:
- The Commonwealth War Graves Commission
- The (UK) National Archives
- Ancestry.co.uk - Genealogy, Family Trees & Family History online
- ugle.org.uk - The records of the United Grand Lodge of England including the Library and Museum of Freemasonry